The most common congenital malformations in newborns nowadays.

What congenital defects can children have?Congenital defects in infants are diverse and complex. Some mild defects can be intervened and treated successfully, while severe defects can be life-threatening and impact the child’s future development.

Congenital defects in infants can ɱaпifest during the fetal stage, detected through external morphological abnormalities or internal organ defects. Internal defects require careful examination and diagnosis to be detected.

Here are some defects in vital organs that can be identified and require early intervention in infants:

Respiratory system defects

These include esophageal atresia, choanal atresia, diaphragmatic hernia, congenital heart disease, Pierre Robin syndrome, and more.

Genital system defects

These include hidden testicles, testicular torsion, ambiguous genitalia, and more.

Bone and joint defects

Congenital bone and joint defects can occur in any part of the skeletal system and are primarily caused by incorrect posture development or limited space in the mother’s womb.

Digestive system obstructions

Common examples include infantile intestinal obstruction, imperforate anus, and more.

There are ɱaпy congenital defects in infants that can be detected early and proactively intervened upon at birth. However, there are also ɱaпy defects that may not be apparent before birth.

The prevalence of congenital defects in newborns is approximately 1.73%.

The rate of infants born with congenital defects accounts for approximately 1.73%, equivalent to around 8 million affected children per year (according to WHO data). The incidence of congenital defects in children is higher, affecting around 2-3% of all births. Among them, congenital defects related to nervous system abnormalities are particularly dangerous, including Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome, neural tube defects, and hemophilia.

Common congenital defects in newbornsCongenital defects in newborns are highly diverse, but the most common types include:

2.1. Congenital heart defects

Congenital heart defects affect approximately 3,000 infants in our country each year, and they significantly impact heart function and overall health. The most common heart defect is ventricular septal defect, where the left and right ventricles communicate through a hole in the septum.

Ventricular septal defects need to be detected early during pregnancy or immediately after birth. If the defect is small, it may not be severe and can be resolved over ᴛι̇ɱe. However, large defects pose a risk to the child’s life and require surgery.

Congenital heart defects are the most common type of defect.

Congenital heart defects are the most common type of defect.

Infants with heart defects can have multiple combined or independent causes, including:

Genetic factors: Abnormalities inherited from the mother or father, or mutations that lead to the development of congenital heart defects.Side effects of certain medications: Some drugs are not recommended during pregnancy as they can cause fetal defects.Sᴛι̇ɱulant use during pregnancy.2.2. Clubfoot

Clubfoot is a relatively common bone-related defect in newborns, where one or both feet are twisted. The foot may be turned downwards, inwards, or upwards and outwards. While this defect is not as dangerous as heart defects, early intervention is necessary when the bones are still flexible to facilitate correction.

The treatment for clubfoot involves casting and reshaping the foot to restore its normal position soon after birth.

The exact causes of congenital clubfoot have not been fully determined, but genetic factors are widely recognized as the leading cause. In addition, clubfoot may be associated with other bone abnormalities such as hip dysplasia, vertebral fractures, muscular abnormalities, spinal cord defects, and more.

2.3. Anorectal Malformation The current incidence rate of anorectal malformation in newborns is approximately 1 in 5,000 births. This is an abnormal condition where there is a thin layer of skin obstructing the anal opening or a failure to develop a connecting passage between the rectum and anus. Anorectal malformation poses difficulties for infants in terms of their daily activities and can be life-threatening if not surgically intervened.

The exact causes of anorectal malformation in infants have not been fully determined, but some related factors include exposure to radiation, viruses, and side effects of certain medications used during treatment.

2.4. Cleft Lip and Palate

Cleft lip and palate are congenital malformations that can be surgically corrected.

The main cause of cleft lip and palate is genetic factors. Additionally, if the mother uses sᴛι̇ɱulants, drugs, or other substances during pregnancy, they can have detrimental effects and lead to fetal malformation.

These congenital malformations in newborns significantly impact their health, development, and aesthetic factors. Therefore, prevention and early detection are of utmost importance. To prevent these malformations in fetuses, mothers should adopt a scientific and safe lifestyle that includes adequate rest, care, and work. It is essential to avoid alcohol consumption, smoking, sᴛι̇ɱulant substances, and ensure appropriate nutrition for each stage of pregnancy.

Early intervention through corrective measures is crucial for clubfoot defects in infants.

Early intervention through corrective

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